Carlos Pabon-Agudelo (Managing Director)

Carlos Pabon-Agudelo is a regulatory economist providing policy analysis, advice, and litigation support to energy and other infrastructure-related clients in Latin America and around the world. He has special expertise in utility regulation, market restructuring, structure and implementation of commercial and financing strategies, and the economic assessment of liability and damages in litigation and international disputes. For over 20 years, Mr. Pabon has worked with governments, state-owned utilities, and corporations in Latin America, South Asia, Africa, Europe, and the US.

Mr. Pabon has helped clients succeed in numerous liability and damages cases in a variety of international arbitrations in infrastructure industries and in cases involving economic utility decision-making, breach of confidentiality, contracting, market interaction, and contract disputes for governments and private investors. As an expert in the regulation of utilities, he has worked for private companies, regulatory agencies, and system operators on a range of issues, including advising on tariff policies at the distribution and transmission levels, and assessing strategic alternatives for utilities and Independent Power Producers.

In addition to his decades of international economic consulting experience, Mr. Pabon has served as an advisor to the Colombian Minister of Finance on regulatory issues, represented the Ministry before the Energy Regulatory Commission, and worked in the Colombian coal industry. He is proficient in English, Spanish, Portuguese, and French.

Mr. Pabon holds a Bachelor’s and a Master’s degree in Economics from Universidad de los Andes, a certificate in Business Administration from Georgetown University and a Master in International Public Policy with emphasis in Energy and Emerging Markets from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advance International Studies – SAIS.

Recently, Mr. Pabon has been honored to be part of the Thought Leaders – Arbitration Expert Witnesses 2022.

Download Resume (pdf)


Jeff Bloczynski (Affiliate)*

Jeff Bloczynski has nearly two decades of experience as an energy industry economist. He maintains expertise in the workings of the electric power and natural gas industries, and in the quantitative tools required to assess both value and risk in these markets. His practice focuses on providing clear economic analysis of energy markets to clients including commercial energy firms, law firms dealing with contract or regulatory disputes, and energy policy advocates.

Mr. Bloczynski served as the lead economist for the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity, an electric power industry trade association. There he was responsible for conducting policy studies of the impacts of regulations and market dynamics on the electric power sector as well as the broader economy.

Prior to joining ACCCE, Mr. Bloczynski was a senior consultant at NERA Economic Consulting, where he was an energy economist and industry analyst for the electric power, natural gas, and environmental sectors. He served as a litigation consultant in proceedings at state regulatory agencies, domestic and international arbitration panels, and in federal court. He also worked in capital markets, advising investment banks, private equity firms, and corporations involved in M&A activities.

Mr. Bloczynski earlier served as manager of market assessment at PG&E National Energy Group, at the time one of the largest merchant energy companies in the country. There he oversaw the modeling and analysis used for the development of new power plants, the valuation of physical and financial commodity positions, and for portfolio risk management.

Mr. Bloczynski holds BS and MS degrees in Systems Engineering from Case Western Reserve University, where he focused on economic and environmental systems.

Mr. Bloczynski’s detailed Web Page

Dr. Jennifer Vanderhart (Affiliate)*

Jennifer Vanderhart is a Managing Director at Intensity, LLC. As a Ph.D. and economist based in Washington, D.C., she provides a range of services, including litigation support services and economic consulting. Dr. Vanderhart has more than 20 years’ experience in evaluating and quantifying economic damages including claims arising from patent, copyright, and trademark infringement, trade secret misappropriation, contract disputes, employment discrimination, antitrust allegations, FIFRA arbitrations, and claims of expropriation by foreign governments. Her specialties include intellectual property, breach of contract, international arbitration, antitrust, and commercial damages. Her clients include companies in a wide range of industries and retail sectors, including toys, spirits, education, computer hardware and software, consumer goods, mining, tobacco, and financial services.

Before joining Intensity, Dr. Vanderhart founded and led the IP Practice at Analytics Research Group. She has also held positions at several economic consulting firms, and taught at Texas A&M University in the Economics and Management departments. She has published on the subjects of valuation, damages, and intellectual property, and frequently speaks on these topics at conferences and lectures.

Dr. Vanderhart is a member of the American Economic Association, the American Society of International Law, and the Licensing Executives Society of which she is vice-chair for the D.C. Chapter. She is also an associate member of the American Bar Association, where she chairs the Intellectual Property Litigation subcommittee.

Dr. Vanderhart earned her Ph.D. in Economics from Texas A&M University. She received her B.A. at Trinity University, majoring in Economics and Spanish, with a minor in Math. She is also fluent in Spanish.

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IEC Affiliate Juan Benavides

Dr. Juan Benavides (Affiliate)*

Dr. Juan Benavides holds a B. Sc. Degree in Electrical Engineering (Universidad de los Andes), a second degree in Advanced Mathematics (Universidad Nacional of Colombia) and a Ph.D. in Mineral Economics from The Pennsylvania State University.

Dr. Benavides has worked in the energy sector and in the infrastructure industry in various capacities during the past 30 years. He has combined both academic and consultant activities in several Latin American countries and has served as board member for electricity and gas companies, developing transformation strategies to incorporate renewable energies in current utilities investment portfolios. Dr. Benavides expertise includes regulatory design, risk assessment and modeling, corporate and project finance, investment under uncertainty, valuation of venture capital and intangible assets, and corporate strategy formulation. He has worked as Senior Infrastructure Specialist at the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), as the Deputy Dean for Research of the Engineering School at Universidad de los Andes (Colombia), and is currently an Associate Researcher at Fedesarrollo, a think-tank in Colombia.

Dr. Benavides has published papers in a variety of well-known Journals, sector-specific magazines and has written chapters in books published by Stanford University Press, The Johns Hopkins University Press and the IDB, among others.

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Joanna Martin Ziegenfuss (Affiliate)*

Joanna Martin Ziegenfuss is a professional with over 20 years of extensive experience in the global energy industry.

Her expertise in the energy sector includes renewables, hydrogen, RNG, natural gas, LNG, SSLNG, and power generation. Ms. Martin has advised on market-entry business strategy, commercial strategy, energy procurement, feasibility analysis, due diligence of energy infrastructure developments, project finance, and investment in energy assets, with a specific focus on transitioning to cleaner fuels.

Ms. Martin has played a key role in international disputes under the ICC rule, providing invaluable energy market expertise. She has worked for international financial institutions, credit export agencies, investment banks, private equities, law firms, sovereign entities, major international energy companies, project developers, and engineering firms. She has been involved in commercial arbitrations, investment disputes, and litigation across various energy projects, such as SMR Hydrogen facility, PV Solar Power plant, LNG Liquefaction Terminal, Hydroelectric Project, LNG Cargo Reloading, Petroleum Refinery, Electric Utility Shareholders’ Agreements, LNG to Power Project PPA, LNG to Power Project JDA, and alleged fraud in LNG procurement, among others.

Ms. Martin has also provided strategic advisory services in clean fuels, including Green Hydrogen, Green Steal Plant, U.S. Gulf Coast Green and Blue Hydrogen Market Development, Clean Fuel Options Advisory, and Renewable Infrastructure Loans Market and Risk Evaluation.

Ms. Martin has held various significant positions including roles at Cranfield School of Management, Middlesex University London, University of Aberdeen, University of Wales, Swansea, Association of Project Managers, Society for the Environment, and OPITO in the UK. Currently, Ms Martin leads Prasino LLC, based in Washington DC. Before this, she served as the Associate Director in the Climate & Energy Practice for Berkley Research Associates and as an Independent Energy Consultant.  Joanna permanently speaks at different conferences around the world on LNG-related matters.

Ms. Martin holds an MBA in Economics, Finance, and Strategy, a Post Graduate Certificate in Project Finance, an MSc. in Marine and Fisheries Science, a BSc. Hons. in Marine Biology, and an AMP qualification. She is a Chartered Environmentalist and holds a City & Guilds Cert. in Petroleum Processing Technology. Ms. Martin is fluent in French and English and has an intermediate proficiency in German. She is an active member of professional organizations and contributes to the advancement of women in the energy sector.

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Denzel Hankinson (Affiliate)*

Denzel Hankinson is an infrastructure economist and public private partnership (PPP) expert with extensive global experience in the electricity, water, natural gas, telecommunications, and transportation sectors. Mr. Hankinson has managed more than 100 projects in more than 70 countries over his 20 years as a consultant, focusing his global experience in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, and in the Pacific Islands.

Mr. Hankinson has worked with governments, ministries, and regulators to improve the policy and regulation of infrastructure services. He has helped developing tariff-setting procedures for the electricity, water, and district heating sectors and has worked with government PPP units to develop options studies, pipeline projects, policies, and tendering procedures. Mr. Hankinson is an expert in financial and economic analysis of investment projects and has helped several governments develop least-cost power generation plans. Mr. Hankinson has performed project- and program level evaluations for multilateral development banks such as the World Bank, Millennium Challenge Corporation, and African Development Bank.  He is a member of the American Evaluation Association. In addition, Mr. Hankinson has substantial experience providing research and analysis in support of litigation and testimony preparation. He has worked on issues related to regulation of electricity prices, market power issues, tariff of infrastructure series and manipulation of gas price indices affecting long-term contract rates.

Mr. Hankinson began his career in 1997 with National Economic Research Associates (NERA) and has worked in the infrastructure advisory practices of EconOne Research and Castalia Strategic Advisors. He has an M.A. in Energy, Environment, Science and Technology from Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and a B.A. in Political Science from the College of William & Mary . He  is fluent in Spanish and German.

Mr. Hankinson’s detailed Web Page

Ms. Jeanne Lubek (Affiliate)*

Ms. Jeanne Lubek is an experienced consultant for more than 20 years with expertise in environmental, telecommunications, competition, transport, and international regulation. She has advised clients on strategic and regulatory issues in a wide range of sectors, including energy, financial services, telecommunications, media, building materials industry, and construction.

Ms. Lubek specializes in a market approach that combines a deep understanding of the regulatory environment, strategic and political issues as well as complex modelling requirements. She has developed a broad experience in regulatory and financing issues regarding large infrastructures and regulated sectors. Jeanne Lubek advises not only company managers and CEOs, but also Legal advisors, regulatory authorities and governments representatives. She regularly performs public presentations.

Ms. Lubek started her career as business analyst at the Ministry of Finance in France, and continued by working for several international economic consulting companies. Jeanne Lubek holds a postgraduate degree (DEA) from EHESS in Economics, and an Engineer Diploma in Statistics and Economics from ENSAE ParisTech.

David Reinstein (Affiliate)*

Mr. Reinstein brings senior leadership with over 35 years of global experience in the energy sector. He is an expert in regulation of energy utilities, energy markets design and regulation, planning and evaluation of infrastructure projects, energy transformation and resilience of energy services provision. His expertise includes petroleum and gas upstream and downstream laws and regulations, gas and electricity tariffs, power markets reforms to introduce renewables, planning and operation of gas and electricity systems, economic dispatch, utilities performance, and infrastructure development.

Mr. Reinstein worked for the World Bank the last fourteen years providing strategic advice to governments and utilities in the importance for success of having a strong governance with an adequate regulatory framework. Mr. Reinstein helped World Bank clients succeed in defining and implementing market rules and energy policies for the decarbonization programs in Africa, Europe, Asia, Middle East, and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Prior to joining the World Bank, he was Advisor and Deputy Director to the National Hydrocarbon Agency of Colombia (ANH), and Executive Director of the Colombian Electricity, Gas and LPG Regulatory Commission (CREG). He was also Advisor to the Minister of Finance on infrastructure and energy, Business Development Manager of Gas and Power for BP, and Director of Planning, Evaluation and Negotiation of coal mining projects. Mr. Reinstein worked as well as a research associate in energy regulation and political economy at the Foundation for Higher Education and Development of Colombia (FEDESARROLLO) and lectured in Energy Economics at University of Los Andes. He started his career as a dispatch power engineer at the Electricity Company of Bogotá (EEEB).

Mr. Reinstein holds a Bachelor’s in Electrical Engineering and a master’s degree in Economics from Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and a Magister of Engineering from McGill University. He is proficient in English and Spanish and has working knowledge of French and Portuguese.

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Kathleen King (Affiliate)*

Kathleen King has three decades of experience specializing in economic analysis of issues in the energy sector and in commodity and financial markets. She has testified and provided support in litigation, arbitration, and investigations as the founder and President of Mosaic Economic Consulting, a Partner and Principal at Bates White Economic Consulting, and a Vice President at NERA Economic Consulting. Her work in contested proceedings has focused on market manipulation and collusion in both commodity and financial markets, other disputes related to trading and risk management, disputes over pricing of energy transactions, breach of contract, bankruptcy, modeling power markets, and power plant construction. Dr. King’s advisory work has included advice on surveillance and risk management in traded markets, as well as extensive experience in both wholesale and retail electricity markets.

Earlier, as Member and Executive Director of Capstone Global Energy and as Director of Structuring and Research at Cinergy Capital and Trading, Dr. King conducted economic due diligence and assessed the risk of power plants, modeled electricity markets and forecast power prices, and assessed contracts including fuel supply and transportation, sale of energy, and contracts with the steam host for cogeneration plants.

As Vice President at Christensen Associates, she designed retail electricity price structures with time-varying rates, assisted utilities with their implementation, and analyzed customer response.

She also served as an Economist at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, where she analyzed methods to measure the risk of financial institutions.

Dr. King holds a PhD, MS, and BA in Economics from the University of Wisconsin—Madison.

 Dr. King’s detailed Web Page

IEC Affiliate Bob Grabham

Bob Grabham

Bob Grabham (Affiliate)*
Bob Grabham has a detailed understanding of the economics of the upstream oil & gas, mid & downstream gas, downstream oil and electricity industries. He has managed high profile, multi-disciplinary energy consulting assignments in a number of countries.  Recent major assignments include:
*Feasibility Study for a major gas transmission pipeline in Nigeria.

* Feasibility Study comparing the economics of a pipeline versus rail to displace the trucks delivering petroleum products from Djibouti to the 130 million population of landlocked Ethiopia.

*Feasibility Study for a new petroleum products import terminal in West Africa.

Bob Grabham has been a consulting energy economist since 1990, working with both economics and engineering consultancies on the feasibility, finance and regulation of gas and oil infrastructure. Prior to consultancy, Bob worked for oil major BP, where he gained detailed experience of the upstream oil & gas, downstream oil, engineering and coal businesses.

Download Resume [pdf]

Read Bob Grabham’s article on Reliable Electricity Supply for Nigeria

Dr. Brian C. Prest (Affiliate)*

Dr. Brian C. Prest is an economist and Postdoctoral Fellow at Resources for the Future (RFF), specializing in energy and environmental economics and policy. He uses econometric tools and economic theory to study environmental policy, the changing nature of energy markets, and the interrelationships between them. Dr. Prest’s recent work considers the implications of the shale revolution for oil and gas markets, climate policy, intertemporal dynamics of market-based environmental policy, among others. Ongoing work includes improving the empirical basis underlying the social cost of carbon, as well as evaluating US energy policies.

Brian Priest earned his Ph.D. at Duke University.  Previously he worked in both the public sector and private sector. In the former, he developed energy-economic models to analyze the implications of energy and environmental policies, including the Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill and renewable electricity standards. At latter, he conducted electricity market modeling, project valuation, and discounted cash flow analysis of energy and infrastructure investments in the United States, Latin America, Europe, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

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IEC Affiliate Edward Kee

Edward Kee (Affiliate)*

Mr. Kee is an expert on nuclear power economics. He provides strategic and economic advice to companies and governments on nuclear power and electricity industry issues. He has testified as an expert witness in US and international legal and arbitration cases.

Mr. Kee held senior consulting positions at several consulting companies. He was a merchant power plant developer and a nuclear power plant engineer (qualified as chief engineering officer on Nimitz-class nuclear aircraft carriers) before becoming a consultant.

Mr. Kee holds an MBA from Harvard University and a BS in Systems Engineering (Distinction) from the US Naval Academy.

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Dr. Michael Rosenzweig (Affiliate)*

Dr. Rosenzweig is an expert on finance, regulation, and electricity markets.  He has focused his career in providing advisory services on matters involving restructuring, regulation and privatization of state-owned utilities as well as regulation of electric utilities around the world.

Dr. Rosenzweig provides strategic advice to utilities, independent power producers and customers on issues related to the design and implementation of purchase and supply contracts. In addition to these areas, his expertise also includes transmission pricing and access, strategic planning for utilities, power market rules, ancillary services, and tariffs. During his several decades of experience, Dr. Rosenzweig has addressed strategic issues related to market competition, energy contracts, transmission access, pricing and restructuring in the United States, Latin America, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Dr. Rosenzweig has provided expert testimony and consulting expertise before international arbitration tribunals, US District Court, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Congress, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), and local regulatory bodies.  He has served as an arbitrator and mediator in disputes in the US on breach of contracts.

The University of Maryland is Dr. Rosenzweig’s alma mater from where he received a PhD in Applied Mathematics, an MBA with a concentration in Operations Research, and a BS in Mathematics.  Dr. Rosenzweig speaks English and has reading skills in Spanish and Portuguese.

Download Resume [pdf]

* Affiliates are independent contractors to IEC and may not act for, represent, or bind IEC. No joint venture, partnership, employment, or agency relationship exists between an Affiliate and IEC.